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What is Forensic Science

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What is Forensic Science

26,August 2023


With the growing interest among the population in investigative defence systems and the science behind the analysis of the pieces of evidence, forensic science has evolved into a definitive career perspective. Several criminal & justice TV shows, detailed analysis of the historical facts and growing demands for the authenticity of documents and enhanced security have piqued the interest of the new generation in forensic science, aspiring them to become successful forensic scientists. Let's get into the details of what is forensic science. How can one be a forensic scientist, and what exactly is the expertise of a forensic expert such that they help bring forth the truth and reveal the crime conducted?

Introducing Forensic Science?

Sherlock Holmes said, “There is nothing more deceptive than an obvious truth". In forensic sciences, one sets foot to find out the reality and the truth behind a particular action or the probability closest to reality. If the situation seems too apparent or 'in your face truth’, you better be ready to find out the reality of the course of the actions taken and the conclusion reached. Forensic science, by definition, is the method of analyzing the evidence collected and interpreting the results to conclude the crime being committed. Forensic science is a field of science including but not limited to physics, chemistry, and biology of the various items and evidence collected from a crime science to understand the situation, conditions, and circumstances under which an action was taken. Forensic science analysis is not only about going through a crime scene and finding evidence linked to the perpetrator and the victim but also to enhance the security and analysis of the documents or trace elements that define the natural circumstances that have already occurred. In this blog, we will delve into the depths of forensic science and try to figure out what horizons you may touch.

Road Map to Forensic Scientist

Has criminal investigation shows entice you to sort through the clues and find out the criminal in the dark before the investigative officer on the show can? Maybe watching Sherlock Holmes excited you to look at the crimes and situations in a different light. Sherlock Holmes isn’t exactly a forensic scientist, nor is the team of our favourite show CID.

A forensic scientist is a certified expert who has expertise in various fields or might specialize in a particular area of forensics. Becoming a forensic scientist requires you to have an undergraduate degree in forensic science or any of the major fields of science (physics, chemistry, and biology) and a postgraduate degree in forensic science. Some of the major fields of forensics sciences are as follows:

  • Ballistics & firearms identification,
  • Toxicology,
  • Serology,
  • Odontology,
  • Questioned documents,
  • Pathology,
  • Anthropology,
  • Accounting,
  • Entomology,
  • DNA fingerprinting,
  • Fingerprint analysis,
  • Hair & Fiber Analysis
  • Video & audio forensics,

Completing a Forensic Science course and specializing in any of the fields would certify you to be a forensic scientist. As a forensic scientist, along with unravelling the truth, you would also be helping the judiciary system to bring forth the truth of the crime committed and bring criminals to justice. Appearing for the entrance examinations like GITAM GAT, NEST, CG PET, OUAT, and BHU Entrance Examinations can get you a seat for the undergraduate forensic courses in the government forensic science institutes. Private forensic science universities and forensic science colleges often have their own entrance examination and eligibility criteria that gets you admission. Some of the government forensic science colleges include:

  • National Forensic Sciences University (Gujarat, Delhi, Goa, Tripura, Bhopal, Pune, Guwahati, Manipur, Dharwad)
  • Banaras Hindu University
  • Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University
  • Lok Narayan Jaiprakash Narayan Institute
  • Delhi University
  • University of Madras
  • Panjab University
  • Osmania University

Private Forensic Science Colleges are also rapidly increasing around the country that includes some of the famous institutes, such as:

  • Lloyd Institute of Forensic Science (Noida)
  • Amity University (Noida)
  • Lovely Professional University
  • Galgotias University

Forensic Science Specializations

Completing a graduate course in forensic science allows you to pursue a master’s degree and Ph.D. in and specialized field. The specialization may be of keen interest or may be one of your undergraduate core subjects. Let us see what the areas of expertise you may explore are.

  • Ballistics & Firearms Identification – the field is dedicated to studying and analysing various firearms, including other weapon analyses. Identifying how a weapon is used to inflict damage. Analysis of the bullets and the firearms used to fire. Exemplary, this analysis can help identify which firearm is responsible for a particular shoot if there are multiple weapons or perpetrators.
  • Toxicology – Analysis of the food, chemicals, presence of alcohol, drugs, etc., at the crime scene or in the victim/ perpetrator. For example, in case of a poison killing, analysis of the stomach content of the victim can identify what kind of poison or drugs have been ingested to be used as a killing weapon.
  • Serology – The biological field of forensic science deals with the analysis of blood and other bodily fluids. Such as blood analysis for drug use or in case of sexual offences to identify the offender/offenders. Analysis of the DNA thus obtained can help in singling out the offender.
  • Odontology – this is the analysis of the dental evidence recovered from a crime scene. Odontology is also widely used in archaeological expeditions to identify fossils and approximate the age and gender of the dental structures. An odontologist is widely consulted in case of massive bomb blasts claiming multiple lives to identify the victims.
  • Questioned Documents – This area of forensic science deals with the analysis of the authentication of legal documents. The area also analysis the signatures, handwriting, indentations, and writing habits to identify any forgery. Heard of check bounces from a bank because the signatures did not match? That's a forensic document analyst identifying the discrepancies in your signature and checks, thus denying the authenticity of your check.
  • DNA fingerprinting – This field undergoes the studies and analysis of the DNA samples collected from the crime scene and that of the victims or suspects. Matching the DNA identifies the perpetrators, but often it is also used to understand the lineage and estranged family. DNA fingerprinting is also used to identify specific diseases, and analyzing a specific kind of gene anomaly can help identify the truth behind a crime committed or the suspect turning him into a criminal or acquitted.
  • Fingerprint analysis – This field is widely known. Our smartphones and laptops have fingerprint scans to unlock our devices. Similarly, fingerprints are also used to identify the perpetrator present at the crime scene out of the suspects. Every human on earth has a unique set of fingerprints; the indents and ridges on your finger don't match any other. Analyzing the complete and partial prints is also important in document & signature forgery.
  • Hair & Fiber Analysis – Hair analysis provides us with the DNA samples and a rough identification of the suspects present at the crime scene. Hair colour, texture, length, and keratin analysis are considered in the hair analysis. Fibre analysis is very much similar, where the evidence sample is a fibre from a cloth, rug, plantation fibre, etc.
  • Video & audio forensics – Video and audio forensics include the analysis of the authenticity of the audio and video analysis. In case of any video editing or voice alteration, samples can help understand the evidence.
  • Linguistics – Linguistics is often considered partial document analysis and partial voice analysis. The differences in the audio samples can be detected based on differences in the language, pronunciation, and tone of the speech.

Career Prospects of Forensic Science

Specializing in any of the fields of forensic sciences would grant you the opportunity to be a part of the judicial system. Also, many private organizations, banks, and government offices propose promising career opportunities for forensic experts. The table below shows some of the major career prospects one may pursue and the average salaries they would be rewarded annually.

Job Profile Salary
Forensic Investigator INR 6.3LPA
Forensic Computer Expert INR 6.65LPA
Crime Laboratory Analyst INR 6.0LPA
Forensic Scientist INR 5.4LPA
Crime Scene Examiner INR 4.0LPA
Forensic Expert INR 4.0LPA
Forensic IT Specialist INR 4.0LPA
Forensic Anthropologist INR 3.9LPA
Forensic Pathologist INR 3.6LPA
Forensic Psychologist INR 3.6LPA

Forensic Science Experts find the best recruitments in a wide range of organizations, including government & private sectors, together. These include:

  • Hospitals
  • Police
  • Intelligence Bureau
  • Central Bureau of Intelligence
  • Government & Private Banks
  • Army
  • Defence
  • Law Firms
  • Private Investigative Agencies
  • Food & Drug Administrative Agencies
  • Media & News Agencies


Forensic science is not only a science field with vast scope but a crucial pillar to the judicial system. Forensic scientists and subject matter experts deserve to be the priority; they are the actual truth determiners and analyze the truth behind the false glasses of fraud and deception. If we are truly considering a safe and secure atmosphere and culture for ourselves and our future generations, a strong hold over advanced forensic & homeland security in addition to the criminal justice to maintain law and order in society.






  • Forensic Science Under Siege – Kelly M. PYREK
  • Forensic Science A Very Short Introduction – Jim Fraser